Why are women living longer than men?
Everywhere in the world women live longer than men – but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn’t live longer than men in the 19th century. What’s the reason why women live longer than men? Why the advantage has grown over time? We only have partial evidence and the evidence isn’t sufficient to support an informed conclusion. While we are aware that there are behavioral, biological, and environmental factors that all play a role in women’s longevity more than males, we aren’t sure what percentage each factor plays in.
We have learned that women live longer than men, regardless of their weight. But it is not because of certain biological or non-biological factors have changed. These factors are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are others that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women’s longevity disproportionately.
Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is over the line of parity diagonally. This means that a newborn girl in all countries can be expected to live for longer than her older brother.
It is interesting to note that, while the advantage for women exists across all countries, the global differences are significant. In Russia women live 10 years longer than males. In Bhutan the gap is just half a year.
In countries with high incomes, تحاميل مهبلية the women’s advantage in longevity used to be smaller
We will now examine how the female advantage in longevity has changed over time. The following chart shows the male and female life expectancies when they were born in the US in the years 1790 until 2014. Two points stand out.
First, there’s an upward trend. Men and women in the US live a lot, much longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.
The second is that there is an ever-widening gap: female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be extremely small however it increased dramatically during the last century.
If you select the option “Change country in the chart, you can determine if these two points are also applicable to the other countries with available information: Sweden, France and the UK.